O sistema de geração distribuída é formado por geradores de pequeno porte, provenientes de fontes renováveis ou cogeração. Para que esse sistema funcione, é necessário que seja homologado junto a concessionária de energia obedecendo as normas exigidas pela mesma. A Resolução Normativa n°482 da ANEEL estabelece as regras gerais para o acesso de micro e minigeração distribuída. A microgeração deve possuir potência instalada menor ou igual a 75kW e a minigeração potência instalada superior a 75 kW e limite de 5MW para qualquer fonte.

Para que o sistema seja caracterizado como micro ou minigeração é necessário que o consumidor faça junto à concessionária a solicitação e o parecer de acesso, a concessionária tem o prazo de 15 dias para elaboração do parecer para microgeração e 30 dias para minigeração. Em seguida a distribuidora de energia emite o parecer de acesso informando as condições de acesso e os requisitos técnicos necessários para a conexão da instalação e os respectivos prazos. Vale ressaltar que a solicitação de acesso deverá ser realizada por um Responsável técnico e que, para o consumidor realizar essa solicitação não podem existir débitos.

O Sistema de compensação de energia elétrica, que permite que a energia excedente gerada em micro ou minigeração distribuída seja injetada na rede da distribuidora, onde ficará armazenada em forma de créditos de energia podendo ser utilizada por até 60 meses. O consumidor pode ainda utilizar esses créditos em outras unidades consumidoras em local diferente do ponto de consumo, desde que estejam dentro da mesma área de concessão, sendo caracterizada como autoconsumo remoto, geração compartilhada ou condomínios.

A geração compartilhada refere-se a consumidores que estão dentro da mesma área de concessão ou permissão, por meio de consórcio ou cooperativa, sendo pessoa física ou jurídica que possui unidade consumidora com microgeração ou minigeração em local diferente das unidades consumidores de onde será compensada a energia excedente. Já o autoconsumo remoto é caracterizado por unidade consumidora de pessoa jurídica (incluídas matriz e filial), ou pessoa física que possui unidade consumidora com microgeração ou minigeração em local diferente das unidades consumidores de onde será compensada a energia excedente, dentro da mesma área de concessão ou permissão. Os empreendimentos com múltiplas unidades consumidoras denominados condomínios, utilizam a energia de forma independente, onde cada instalação tem sua fração constituindo uma unidade consumidora e as áreas de uso comum sendo também uma unidade consumidora distinta, possuindo sua própria instalação.

A utilização de créditos de energia em outras unidades consumidoras participantes de cooperativa ou consórcio, deverá ser informada pelo titular da unidade consumidora com a geração distribuída o percentual que será alocado para cada unidade participante.



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