Micro Centrais Hidrelétricas, mais conhecidas como Centrais Geradoras Hidrelétricas, são todos os geradores com potência de até 5MW que utilizam os recursos hídricos para geração de energia elétrica. No Brasil, o aproveitamento hidrelétrico representa 62% da matriz energética, segundo dados da Big Aneel, graças à abundância de cursos d’água e topografia, o que viabilizam muitos projetos de pequeno a grande porte.

A viabilidade de geração de energia com aproveitamento hidrelétrico está relacionado a dois fatores principais: a queda ou desnível e a vazão de água disponível. Essas duas grandezas são responsáveis por fornecer a energia mecânica, que possibilita a geração da energia elétrica. São muitas as formas de medição dessas grandezas e o estudo hídrico deve levar em consideração fatores locacionais como o relevo, solo e precipitação das chuvas.

A potência calculada é uma estimativa e pode variar conforme os rendimentos das turbinas, do gerador e do comprimento de condutos, mas dão base para determinar a viabilidade do projeto. As estruturas que compõem o arranjo do projeto são: a tomada d’água, o canal, a câmara de carga, a tubulação e casa de máquinas. Cada elemento possui uma função e pode ser construídos com diferentes materiais e dimensões, conforme o local da implementação.

Os projetos de geração podem ser on-grid (conectados a rede elétrica) ou off-grid (isolados da rede). A escolha da solução dependerá de fatores, como o perfil de consumo, demanda energética, disponibilidade da rede elétrica e também, capital de investimento. O levantamento do consumo e perfil horário do local é fundamental para determinar a parte elétrica do projeto.

As Micro Hidrelétricas apresentam boa viabilidade técnica e financeira, já que se tratam de obras de pequeno que proporcionam uma geração contínua de energia. Além disso, as operações de manutenção são de baixo custo, uma vez que as instalações são pequenas, com poucos componentes e não dependem de um operador para funcionar.

Outra vantagem das Micro Hidrelétricas é a obtenção do Licenciamento Ambiental dos projetos. Por serem de pequeno porte, o impacto causado na região são mínimos. Apesar disso, é muito importante consultar o órgão ambiental antes de iniciar as obras.

Solicite um estudo de uma Micro hidrelétrica com a FCamp! Acesse o site e entre em contato para mais informações.

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