Realizar o cálculo do custo nivelado de energia elétrica (LCOE) é uma forma de analisar economicamente diferentes fontes de produção de energia e suas diferentes tecnologias. Essa análise demonstra o custo por megawatt-hora, o custo inicial de uma usina e seu custo operacional durante sua vida útil. Existem disponíveis calculadoras online para o cálculo de LCOE [ EX: https://www.nrel.gov/analysis/tech-lcoe.html ].

Existe também o custo de mitigação, custo de mitigar ou reduzir algo negativo, como um dano ambiental. Essa análise é realizada sempre entre duas alternativas, por exemplo, suponhamos que você tenha uma usina com alto custo, mas que não seja poluente e possua também uma outra usina, com baixo custo porém seja poluente ao meio ambiente. Você pode realizar a comparação entre essas duas usinas com base no custo de poluição por tonelada. Como no custo nivelado, o custo de mitigação possui aplicações na vida cotidiana, como na análise de sistemas de energia.

Na maioria dos casos onde a opção da solução mais limpa for mais cara, o custo de mitigação dela será positivo. Já no caso da solução ser mais limpa e mais barata, seu custo de mitigação será negativo.

Sabemos que extrair e transformar energia requer terra, mas como podemos avaliar e comparar os diversos usos do solo? Uma forma simples de se fazer essa avaliação é  a métrica da densidade de potência, a taxa na qual a energia é extraída por unidade de terra. Uma medida comum da densidade de potência são os watts de energia primária por metro quadrado de terra.

A densidade de energia das fontes renováveis geralmente é muito menor que a densidade de potência de combustíveis fósseis ou energia nuclear.

Todos nossos sistemas de energia precisam incluir considerações sobre emissões de carbono, bem como alterações do albedo da superfície, escoamento da água  entre outros fatores.

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