Desde 2012, é permitido o acesso de micro geração e mini geração distribuída aos sistemas de distribuição de energia elétrica nacionais. E o que isso significa? Em suma, através da Resolução 482 da ANEEL (Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica), o brasileiro pode gerar a sua própria energia elétrica e ainda distribuir o excedente da sua produção para a rede elétrica da sua concessionária.

Esse processo denomina-se Geração Distribuída (GD) e permite ao consumidor instalar geradores de energia com fontes renováveis, como painéis solares, para abastecer o seu consumo próprio e ainda fornecer o excedente para a rede da distribuidora em forma de créditos.

A Resolução 482 determinou um passo importante para o setor energético brasileiro, em uma época em que pouco era discutido sobre a energia limpa, e foi o marco regulatório para a criação das regras que permitisse que o consumidor gerasse sua própria energia. Essa possibilidade é o Sistema de Compensação de Energia Elétrica (SCEE), que fica diretamente conectado ao sistema elétrico. 

Toda energia que o sistema gerar que não for utilizada, será registrada pelo medidor de energia e enviada à rede. Ao final do mês, o valor excedente, ou seja, o resultado da diferença entre as quantidades de energia consumida e gerada, será devolvido ao consumidor em forma de créditos de energia, com validade de 60 meses. Caso o consumo seja maior que a energia gerada, a diferença será cobrada na fatura de energia normalmente pela distribuidora. 

De acordo com as regras atuais, o consumidor que possui a Geração Distribuída é isento de pagar as taxas e encargos da rede de distribuição, uma vez que esse gasto é compensado através da geração de energia. Assim, os custos de uso são divididos entre todos os consumidores. É importante ressaltar que o consumidor com GD também paga uma taxa mínima para cobrir o custo da rede, mas em alguns casos, não é proporcional.

Mesmo que a energia gerada abasteça o imóvel, a rede de distribuição não deixa de ser utilizada quando a produção energética não for suficiente, para suprir o consumo do local ou ainda durante a noite, que é o caso dos sistemas solares. Dessa forma, a Revisão da Resolução 482 propõe que os custos de uso da rede e também os encargos, sejam pagos pelos consumidores que possuem a GD de forma que não impacte a tarifa de quem não possui o sistema.

Para Rodrigo Limp, diretor relator do processo, a medida permite o avanço responsável do sistema e ainda sim atrativa para novos consumidores.

“A proposta em consulta reconhece que a geração distribuída veio para ficar, que a modalidade está crescendo exponencialmente e alcançou a maturidade, portanto, é tempo de revisarmos o normativo para mais adiante não termos um efeito colateral negativo ao sistema”, explica. 

A revisão deve ter o processo concluído até o início de 2021, segundo a vice-presidente de GD da Associação Brasileira de Energia Solar Fotovoltaica (Absolar), Bárbara Rubim. Para os consumidores que já possuem o sistema, a proposta entrará em vigor em 2030 ou quando atingido a quantidade de GD pré-determinada em cada distribuidora. Após a publicação da revisão da norma, prevista para o próximo ano, quem realizar o pedido de instalação, passará a ser compensado na nova regra.

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