Energia eólica, também conhecida como energia dos ventos, é a energia cinética contida nas massas de ar que é utilizada para transformar-se em energia elétrica. O processo para aproveitamento da energia eólica é feito através dos aero geradores, equipamentos utilizados que, a partir do contato com o vento, rotacionam e geram outras formas de energia, como mecânica e a elétrica, por exemplo.

Uma das primeiras fontes de energia utilizadas pela humanidade foi a dos ventos, que era aplicada em trabalhos mecânicos em moinhos e cata-ventos para moagem de grãos e bombeamento de água. Apesar disso, essa fonte de energia só passou a ser considerada uma alternativa para gerar energia elétrica na década de 70, quando aconteceu a crise do petróleo.

Renovável, limpa e considerada inesgotável, a energia eólica apresenta muitos benefícios. Os custos de implantação são relativamente baixos, dado o desempenho e o retorno da produção. Além disso, não exige muita necessidade de manutenção e é um setor com grande potencial de gerar empregos. A única questão negativa em relação à energia eólica é referente a sua intermitência, uma vez que depende da ocorrência de vento em densidade e velocidade ideais, parâmetros que sofrem variações anuais e sazonais.

A energia eólica é a terceira fonte mais representativa na matriz brasileira, com uma potência instalada de 15,72 GW, cerca de 12,57% de toda potência do país, segundo dados da Aneel. Nos últimos anos, o crescimento desse setor energético adapta-se, cada vez mais, às diferentes características dos ventos e das regiões do país. Os equipamentos estão mais eficientes e com torres cada vez mais altas, para que haja maior eficiência e melhor aproveitamento energético. 

No Brasil, os melhores ventos estão na região nordeste e sul, com características bem diferentes. Porém, podem ser encontrados ventos de velocidade aproveitável em todo o litoral e também, em algumas regiões do interior de Minas Gerais.

A geração de energia elétrica através da energia eólica não acontece apenas nos grandes parques eólicos. Aero geradores de pequeno porte são utilizados para gerar energia em residências, empreendimentos rurais e industriais. A sua estrutura assemelha-se com os de grande porte, porém com componentes compactos e simplificados.

A diversidade da utilização, geração e aplicação da energia eólica é grande! Quando implementada em residências, o cliente pode economizar nos gastos com a fatura de energia e consegue, ainda, o retorno do investimento em 5 a 6 anos, sendo superior às demais fontes renováveis, como a solar, por exemplo.

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