Os combustíveis fósseis são recursos naturais usados para a geração de energia. Nesse grupo estão o petróleo, carvão e gás natural, que são resultado da decomposição de seres vivos, como plantas e animais, nas camadas terrestres.

O uso dos combustíveis fósseis é feito através da combustão, uma reação química, que queima o combustível e gera a energia. Além da energia, a queima também resulta na emissão de dióxido de carbono (CO2), que é um dos gases mais poluentes e o grande responsável pelo aquecimento global

A energia produzida por esses recursos é milenar e tem um grande papel na sociedade, sendo a mais usada no mundo. O carvão, por exemplo, é anterior à história registrada, e o petróleo começou a ser explorado no século XIX.  Cerca de 75% da demanda energética é proveniente dos combustíveis fósseis, principalmente pelas indústrias e veículos. O aquecimento global e os buracos na camada de ozônio são consequência dessa porcentagem. 

Pelos danos ambientais causados pela combustão, vários países tomaram a decisão de reduzir a emissão do dióxido de carbono a partir de 2020. Esse compromisso se chama Acordo de Paris, e tem como um dos principais objetivos conseguir reduzir em 2°C a temperatura mundial

Além da poluição, os combustíveis fósseis têm outra grande desvantagem: não são renováveis. Isso quer dizer que a quantidade existente no mundo é limitada e, quando acabarem as reservas, não existirão mais. Por isso, as buscas pelos recursos renováveis estão aumentando, para que a energia continue sendo produzida de maneira limpa e eficiente.  

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