Uma das maiores desvantagens no uso de combustíveis fósseis está relacionado à emissão de gases poluentes na atmosfera, o que vem provocando um desequilíbrio climático e o aumento da temperatura da Terra. Esse fenômeno é chamado de aquecimento global, que é decorrente do efeito estufa

Na realidade, o efeito estufa é um processo natural, que acontece pela absorção do calor pelos gases presentes na atmosfera, que mantém o planeta em uma temperatura necessária para a manutenção da vida. O problema está no excesso de gases estufa, que absorve mais calor e aumenta a temperatura, causando o aquecimento global

Grande parte desses gases são resultantes da queima de combustíveis fósseis para a geração de energia, que é feita principalmente com o carvão. Esse processo libera, dentre outras substâncias, o CO₂, que é um gás estufa. As indústrias, automóveis e queima de florestas também são responsáveis pela emissão do gás carbônico

Na pauta energética, a melhor solução para reduzir esses gases é adotar energias renováveis, que são limpas e não resultam em poluição. Essas energias provêm de recursos renováveis, como por exemplo, os raios solares, força dos ventos e água. 

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