Durante muito tempo, havia controvérsias sobre o aquecimento global e o papel da humanidade nesse cenário. Alguns estudiosos diziam que a elevação da temperatura era um processo natural do planeta, e não uma consequência das ações humanas. Contudo, atualmente o Painel Intergovernamental de Mudanças Climáticas (IPCC), órgão das Nações Unidas, afirma que as atividades do homem têm responsabilidade sobre o aumento da temperatura. 

O aquecimento global não é algo que aconteceu do dia para a noite. Desde a Revolução Industrial, uma grande quantidade de gases poluentes, como dióxido de carbono (CO2), é emitida na atmosfera. Com mais de 250 anos de poluição constante, o efeito estufa foi intensificado. Comparando com os níveis pré-industriais, o IPCC estima que a temperatura da Terra aumentou em 1,5ºC e cerca de 1°C foi decorrente das ações humanas. 

As principais consequências do aquecimento global incluem: maior frequência de eventos extremos climáticos (ondas de calor, nevascas, furacões, tsunami, etc.); derretimento das calotas polares e aumento do nível dos oceanos. Esse cenário traz prejuízos sociais e ambientais, podendo causar até mesmo o desaparecimento de ilhas povoadas e a extinção de espécies. 

Os danos não são reversíveis, mas é possível evitar que a situação torne-se mais crítica. Segundo o IPCC, o aquecimento global pode ser contido caso ao menos 50% da energia gerada no planeta seja de fontes renováveis e limpas. Atualmente, a queima de combustíveis fósseis (como carvão e petróleo) é responsável por 80% das emissões de CO2 na atmosfera, portanto, sua redução e substituição são essenciais para que o processo de aquecimento seja controlado. 

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