A transição da matriz energética de combustíveis fósseis para fontes renováveis já é uma realidade. Desde o Acordo de Paris, selado em 2015, diversos países se comprometeram a reduzir a emissão de gases poluentes para frear o aquecimento global. Uma das maneiras de diminuir a poluição do ar é trocando a forma de produzir energia elétrica. 

As energias geradas pelos combustíveis fósseis, como carvão, petróleo e gás natural, emitem uma grande quantidade de dióxido de carbono (CO2) e outros gases poluentes, pois o processo energético é resultante da queima desses recursos. Já as energias renováveis, como a solar, eólica e hidrelétrica, garantem a eletricidade sem poluir o meio ambiente e, por isso, são grandes aliadas na luta contra o aumento do efeito estufa. 

Segundo dados da Agência Internacional de Energia (IEA), a matriz energética mundial do ano de 2018 era composta por 38% de carvão, 2,9% de petróleo, 23% de gás natural, 16,2% hidráulica, 10,2% nuclear, 7,3% solar/eólica/geotérmica/maré e 2,4% biomassa. Sendo assim, 74,1% da energia era derivada de fontes não renováveis, e 25,9% de renováveis

Em 2008, o quadro era outro. A matriz era composta por 41% de carvão, 5,5% de petróleo, 21,3% de gás natural, 15,9% hidráulica, 13,5% nuclear e 2,8% da categoria outros, que abrange a solar, eólica, biomassa, termoelétrica, etc. Nesse cenário, 81,3% era de fontes não renováveis e 18,7% de renováveis.

A tendência é que, ao longo dos anos, as energias renováveis sejam as protagonistas na matriz energética mundial. Além das questões ambientais, há outro detalhe para a redução do consumo de combustíveis fósseis. Por serem considerados como ‘não renováveis’, o estoque no planeta Terra não é infinito e está cada dia mais próximo de acabar. Como a quantidade disponível diminuiu, está mais caro e mais difícil de extrair esses recursos, encarecendo o valor da energia. 

As energias renováveis já estão muito presentes atualmente, mas terão uma participação ainda maior no futuro. Uma vez que os recursos são renováveis e estão disponíveis gratuitamente no mundo, a energia renovável depende somente do investimento inicial de um sistema que faça a geração. Com poucos cálculos, é possível ver como é mais economicamente interessante, o que amplia o mercado e a busca de investidores no ramo. 

 

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